Lots of people seem to have problems with internet access after upgrading to Windows 10, according to all sorts of discussions on the web.
Here’s one possible cause: the firewall.
I was working on a Dell laptop recently which had these symptoms, i.e. finding and connecting to the network (wifi or wired), but not getting as far as the internet.
It turned out that Comodo Internet Security’s firewall was getting in the way. I disabled the CIS firewall, and the connection instantly worked. After rebooting, I restored the firewall, and the connection still worked.